Biology (BS)

Toxicology

Toxicology is the study of the harmful effects of chemicals, radiation, and other stressors on biological systems. This is a wide-ranging course of study, allowing students to connect their background on chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, etc. to understand all aspects of how an exposure may or may not yield a toxic result. Then, students can do elementary risk assessment and environmental or medical analyses. The purpose of this option is to train students in the theory and hands-on research techniques of an interdisciplinary biological science at the undergraduate level in a field where there are few programs in the United States. Since toxins can be antibiotics, antiviral or other chemotherapeutic medications, antidotes, agricultural chemicals, industrial chemicals, radiation, or just stressors such as poor ergonomics, graduates can and have proceeded into research and testing of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and environmental toxicology in industry, government, or academic institutions. Additionally, training in risk assessments leads to additional opportunities for statistical modeling, which is employed in the areas mentioned above and industrial hygiene. All emphases require BIOL 105, 106, 211, CHEM 201, and ENG 271W.

Program Requirements

Required General Education

Study of biological processes at the suborganismal level including cell chemistry, metabolism, reproduction, genetics, and complex tissue physiology. Laboratory and discussion sessions stress problem solving and experimental design.

Prerequisites: none

Goal Areas: GE-03

Introduction to the basic principles of chemistry including atomic and molecular structure, bonding, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, thermodynamics and states of matter. Laboratory will reinforce lecture concepts. Prereq: C or higher in MATH 112 or the equivalent; high school chemistry or C or higher in CHEM 104

Prerequisites: “C” (2.0) or higher in MATH 112 or the equivalent; high school chemistry or “C” (2.0) or higher in CHEM 104.

Goal Areas: GE-02, GE-03

Introduction to learning the written and oral communication of technical information. Assignments include writing and presenting proposals, reports, and documentation. Emphasis on use of rhetorical analysis, computer applications, collaborative writing, and usability testing to complete technical communication tasks in the workplace.

Prerequisites: ENG 101 

Goal Areas: GE-02, GE-13

Major Common Core

Study of biological processes at the organismal level including a survey of life forms (viruses, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals), their evolution, and ecology. Laboratory and discussion sessions stress problem solving and experimental design.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 

Introduction to genetic analysis. Topics covered will include those of both classical and modern genetics: population genetics, molecular genetics, genetic manipulation of organisms and selection. Central to this course will be the primacy of the trait as the object of genetics and the development/refinement of the concept of the gene. Lab included.Fall, Spring, Summer

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and MATH 112 

Emphasis Common Core

Choose 65 Credit(s).

Principles of the study of relationships between organisms and the environment. Topics include flow of energy and materials, organism-level interactions, growth and evolution of populations, and community ecology. Field trips to prairie, lake, stream, and forest communities, training in data collection and analysis, use of equipment, and report writing. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 or consent 

Systems approach to the structure of the human body. The course is designed for students majoring in biology or health related programs. Lab included.

Prerequisites: none

An introduction to the general principles and methods used in the study of microorganisms. Lab included. Prereq: One BIOL course and one semester of chemistry from among CHEM 104, CHEM 106, CHEM 111, or CHEM 201. Fall, Spring, Summer

Prerequisites: One BIOL course and one semester of chemistry from among CHEM 104, CHEM 106, CHEM 111, or CHEM 201 

Goal Areas: GE-03

Principles of functions of human cells, organs, and systems with an emphasis on organ/system interactions. This course is designed for students majoring in biology, chemistry, or related sciences, and medically-related areas. Includes a laboratory with a research and medical emphasis.

Prerequisites: BIOL 220, CHEM 104 or CHEM 106 or CHEM 111 or CHEM 201

A lecture course covering basic principles of toxicity evaluation in living organisms, mechanisms of responses to chemicals or physical agents within an overview of practical medical, environmental and science policy implications. Presentation of comparisons of specific organ and tissue reactions to toxins in a variety of species follow these introductory concepts. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry 

A lecture/laboratory course that focuses on anthropogenic and natural toxicants, mathematical modeling of the dispersion of chemical and physical agents in the environment, effects on species and ecosystems with a special section on aquatic risk assessment. The laboratory includes techniques in environmental toxicity and a genuine research project.

Prerequisites: BIOL 460 

A seminar course that involves critical evaluation of published studies in toxicology, student presentations of a selected published manuscript and requires students to write a paper on one aspect of the course's topic area that semeter. Topic areas vary each time the course is offered. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, and General Chemistry Alt-Fall

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and General Chemistry 

A lecture/laboratory course focusing on the steps necessary to start a research project from project definition through methods testing and evaluation, and a final report that includes a project flow chart. Third year students will have senior and/or graduate mentors. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, and General Chemistry Alt-Fall

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and General Chemistry 

A lecture/laboratory course where students perform all aspects of their own designed research topic in toxicology while critically evaluating the progress of other projects as well. Students will be expected to keep timelines or develop modified timelines as necessary. The inverted triangle approach of project design will be examined and then included in all designs.

Prerequisites: BIOL 464 

A lecture course that examines mechanisms of drug action, physiological responses and adverse reactions from sensitivities or allergies through overdose. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, 230 and 1 year of General Chemistry

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry 

A lecture course that examines Minnesota State University, Mankato, as your own work place to develop reports on a selected group of chemical and physical hazards of the workplace. Evaluation methods and solutions to existing problems are developed with concise reporting skills. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106 and 1 year of General Chemistry

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry 

Continuation of the basic principles of chemistry including properties of solutions, kinetics, acids and bases, equilibria, buffers, precipitation reactions, electron transfer reactions, electrochemistry, entropy and free energy. Laboratory will reinforce lecture concepts.

Prerequisites: “C” (2.0) or higher in CHEM 201 

Introduction to the principles of chemical analysis, with emphasis on classical methods of analysis. Lectures will stress the theory of chemical measurements and sample handling. Laboratory exercises will provide students with opportunities to explore calibration methods, method development, and established procedures for volumetric and gravimetric analyses. Basic atomic spectroscopy is also presented.

Prerequisites: “C” (2.0) or higher in CHEM 202 

Introduction to organic nomenclature, structure, bonding, chemical reactivity, organic acid-base reactions, mechanisms and stereochemistry. IR, MS, and NMR spectroscopy will be introduced. The chemistry of alkanes, alkyl halides, alkenes, alkynes, and alcohols will be covered. Laboratory illustrates synthetic techniques and the preparation and reactions of functional groups discussed during lecture.

Prerequisites: CHEM 202, “C” (2.0) or higher in CHEM 202.

This course is a continuation Chem 322 and includes organic nomenclature, structure, bonding, chemical reactivity, organic acid-base reactions, and reaction mechanisms; the chemistry of ethers, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, polyenes, ketones, aldehydes, amines, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, and alpha carbonyl compounds and synthetic transformations is covered.

Prerequisites: CHEM 322 with a "C" (2.0) or higher.

Detailed analysis of the structures, properties, and functions of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids; introduction to carbohydrate metabolism; theory for the purification and analysis of proteins. Concurrent enrollment in CHEM 465 is recommended.

Prerequisites: BIOL 106, CHEM 324. BIOL 106 or permission “C” (2.0) or higher in all prerequisites.

Detailed analysis of the reactions involved in intermediary metabolism, translation, transcription, and replication.

Prerequisites: CHEM 460 

A lecture/laboratory course, which presents methodology and instrumentation used to purify and analyze biomolecules. Techniques include chromatography, radioisotope techniques, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, spectrophotometry, and PCR analysis.

Prerequisites: Concurrent registration in CHEM 460 or completion of CHEM 460 with “C” or higher. CHEM 305 is highly recommended. 

Students work in teams to solve biochemical research problems by analyzing data from experiments which they design.

Prerequisites: CHEM 460 and CHEM 465 

Introduction to statistical analysis as applied to the health sciences. Examines concepts and methods of statistical procedures applied to health problems and issues.

Prerequisites: MATH 110, STAT 154, Or any other mathematics course higher than MATH 110.

Emphasis Restricted Electives

Math Requirement -

Limits, continuity, the derivative and applications, transcendental functions, L'Hopital's Rule, and development of the Riemann integral.

Prerequisites: Satisfy Placement Table in this section, MATH 115 or both MATH 112 and MATH 113 with “C” (2.0) or better.

Goal Areas: GE-04

Physics Requirement -

General background in physical concepts for those who do not plan advanced study in physics or engineering. Topics include mechanics, fluids, heat and thermodynamics. Lecture and laboratory.

Prerequisites: Either MATH 112 and MATH 113, or MATH 115

Goal Areas: GE-02, GE-03