Environmental Science (BS)

Program Requirements

Required General Education

Study of biological processes at the suborganismal level including cell chemistry, metabolism, reproduction, genetics, and complex tissue physiology. Laboratory and discussion sessions stress problem solving and experimental design.

Prerequisites: none

Goal Areas: GE-03

Choose 4 Credit(s). Select One of the Following Math Classes

Concepts of algebra (real numbers, exponents, polynomials, rational expressions), equations and inequalities, functions and graphs, polynomial and rational functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, systems of equations and inequalities, matrices and determinants, conic sections, sequences and series, probability, and binomial theorem.

Prerequisites: Satisfy Placement Table in this section, or MATH 098 with grade of P. 

Goal Areas: GE-04

This course will cover topics of precalculus mathematics. Topics covered will include functions, graphs of functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, conic sections, systems of equations and inequalities, matrices, trigonometric functions, circular functions, vectors and complex numbers, induction, series and probability.

Prerequisites: Satisfy Math Placement Table in this section, or grade of P in MATH 098.

Goal Areas: GE-04

Limits, continuity, the derivative and applications, transcendental functions, L'Hopital's Rule, and development of the Riemann integral.

Prerequisites: Satisfy Placement Table in this section, MATH 115 or both MATH 112 and MATH 113 with “C” (2.0) or better.

Goal Areas: GE-04

Choose 3 - 5 Credit(s). Select One of the Following Chemistry Classes

This course covers fundamental concepts required to understand the general chemistry in living organisms. This is a non-laboratory class. This chemistry course will not prepare students for any Chemistry course at or above the 200 level.

Prerequisites: Student must demonstrate math placement requirements at or above MATH 112 in the placement chart. See Mathematics for details.

Goal Areas: GE-03

Introduction to the basic principles of chemistry including atomic and molecular structure, bonding, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, thermodynamics and states of matter. Laboratory will reinforce lecture concepts. Prereq: C or higher in MATH 112 or the equivalent; high school chemistry or C or higher in CHEM 104

Prerequisites: “C” (2.0) or higher in MATH 112 or the equivalent; high school chemistry or “C” (2.0) or higher in CHEM 104.

Goal Areas: GE-02, GE-03

Major Common Core

Study of biological processes at the organismal level including a survey of life forms (viruses, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals), their evolution, and ecology. Laboratory and discussion sessions stress problem solving and experimental design.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 

Principles of the study of relationships between organisms and the environment. Topics include flow of energy and materials, organism-level interactions, growth and evolution of populations, and community ecology. Field trips to prairie, lake, stream, and forest communities, training in data collection and analysis, use of equipment, and report writing. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 or consent 

This class examines the effects of natural and human-induced changes in climate on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The course focuses on the science behind global change issues that have biological, social, and economic implicatons.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent 

This is a lecture course introducing students to major federal environmental laws and regulations. Discussions include the cause(s) that prompted the enactment of various environmental legislation as well as intent and implementation of the legislation. Both Federal and State of MN environmental statutes will be discussed.

Prerequisites: none

This is a lecture course that introduces students to sources and controls for pollutants in air, water, and soils including hazardous waste. Chemical and biological mechanisms that are important in nature and used to control/treat various types of pollutants are emphasized. Strongly recommended that this course be taken immediately after completing 1 year of Chemistry.

Prerequisites: 1 year CHEM 

The purpose of this lecture/lab class is to introduce students to standard practices and procedures used in sampling and analysis of environmental matrices and to develop an environmental research project. Standard quality control/quality assurance procedures per EPA are emphasized.

Prerequisites: none

Introduces students to National Environmental Policy Act and requirements for Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Assessment Worksheets. Phase I Environmental Assessment of land and buildings, an international perspective on environmental assessments, and economic and social impact assessment are discusseed.

Prerequisites: ENVR 440

Major Restricted Electives

Choose 1 - 6 Credit(s). Select One of the Following Classes

Participate in an independent research project with advisory support and with a focus on the student's career objectives.

Prerequisites: none

Only three credits can be counted toward major. Experience in applied Environmental Sciences according to a prearranged training program.

Prerequisites: none

Choose 3 Credit(s). Select One of the Following Classes

Introduction to statistical analysis as applied to the health sciences. Examines concepts and methods of statistical procedures applied to health problems and issues.

Prerequisites: MATH 110, STAT 154, Or any other mathematics course higher than MATH 110.

An introduction to statistical concepts and methods that is applicable to all disciplines. Topics include descriptive measures of data, probability and probability distributions, statistical inference, tests of hypotheses, confidence intervals, correlation, linear regression, and analysis of variance. The use of statistical software will be emphasized. Prereq: ACT Math sub-score of 19 or higher, successful completion of MATH 098 or appropriate placement scores (see Placement Information under Statistics) Fall, Spring, Summer GE-4

Prerequisites: Satisfy Placement Table in this section, or MATH 098 with grade of P. 

Goal Areas: GE-02, GE-04

Choose 5 Credit(s). Select One of the Following Classes

This course is an introduction to organic chemistry and biological chemistry. The laboratory will reinforce lecture.

Prerequisites: CHEM 106 or high school chemistry 

Goal Areas: GE-02, GE-03

Continuation of the basic principles of chemistry including properties of solutions, kinetics, acids and bases, equilibria, buffers, precipitation reactions, electron transfer reactions, electrochemistry, entropy and free energy. Laboratory will reinforce lecture concepts.

Prerequisites: “C” (2.0) or higher in CHEM 201 

CHOOSE 1 CLUSTER: - Select TWO courses from ONE of the following 6 Areas.

Aquatic Ecology -

The structure and function of stream ecosystems are presented with emphasis on adaptations of organisms to stream life and connections between stream organisms, the aquatic environment, and the surrounding watershed. Includes lab, field work, and team projects. Prereq: BIOL 105W, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consentSummer

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent

To provide students the values and functions of wetlands and to use wetlands as an example of the relationship of ecology to management, and the impact that classification systems have politically. Lab (fieldwork) included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent 

An introduction to fish biology and fisheries management, diversity, form, and function in the aquatic environment, functional physiology, evolution and speciation, identification and use of keys, ecology, and management topics.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent of instructor

This course is an introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and interactions of inland freshwater lakes. Labs will emphasize field work, including data collection from five local lakes, analysis, and discussion.

Prerequisites: none

Vertebrate Ecology -

A comprehensive phylogenetic survey of both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Emphasis on evolutionary relationships among phyla, the evolution of organ systems, animal organization and function, animal adaptations, and zoogeographical considerations. Research and inquiry of animal unity and diversity will include using the Internet. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 

An introduction to fish biology and fisheries management, diversity, form, and function in the aquatic environment, functional physiology, evolution and speciation, identification and use of keys, ecology, and management topics.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent of instructor

A field course in the ecology of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and fishes. Students are trained in sampling techniques such as mark-and-recapture, population size estimation and monitoring, and species identification of live and preserved specimens. Lectures encompass evolution and adoption, origins, energetics, mating systems, morphology, geographical distributions, and population-level phenomena. Lecture and Laboratory.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent 

A field course focused on the function and dynamics of various North American ecosystems. Emphases will be on natural history, critical thought, and experimental design. Students will be trained in a variety of soil, plant, and animal sampling techniques. Depending on enrollment, there may be additional costs (e.g., camping fees) for the course.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent 

Soil ecology will focus on the genesis and classification of soils, the physical properties of soil as they relate to habitat formation, niches, interactions that exist among soil organisms, human impact on soil systems relative to population pressures and management practices. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent 

A comparison of adaptation mechanisms, from cell to organ-system, used by animals in response to changes in environmental conditions such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, food availability, temperature, water, solutes, pressure and buoyancy.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106 or consent 

An exploration of behavioral strategy, communication, learning, and social systems of animals, with emphases placed on the causes, evolution, ecological implications, and function of behavior at the individual and population level. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 

Ecology -

A comprehensive phylogenetic survey of both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Emphasis on evolutionary relationships among phyla, the evolution of organ systems, animal organization and function, animal adaptations, and zoogeographical considerations. Research and inquiry of animal unity and diversity will include using the Internet. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 

Applications of principles from ecology, genetics, behavior, demography, economics, philosophy, and other fields to the conservation and sustainable use of natural populations of plants and animals. Lectures and discussions address topics such as habitat fragmentation, parks and reserves, genetic diversity, population viability, and extinction.

Prerequisites: BIOL 215 or consent 

An introduction to fish biology and fisheries management, diversity, form, and function in the aquatic environment, functional physiology, evolution and speciation, identification and use of keys, ecology, and management topics.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent of instructor

Soil ecology will focus on the genesis and classification of soils, the physical properties of soil as they relate to habitat formation, niches, interactions that exist among soil organisms, human impact on soil systems relative to population pressures and management practices. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent 

Morphological, physiological, medical, and economic significance of insects.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 or consent 

Expands upon general principles of ecology to focus on the factors that regulate the distribution and abundance of plants, analysis of plant populations, and dynamics of plant communities. Lecture and lab (fieldwork) included. (Taking BIOL 217 is strongly recommended before taking this class.)

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent. BIOL 217 strongly recommended. 

Toxicology -

A lecture course covering basic principles of toxicity evaluation in living organisms, mechanisms of responses to chemicals or physical agents within an overview of practical medical, environmental and science policy implications. Presentation of comparisons of specific organ and tissue reactions to toxins in a variety of species follow these introductory concepts. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry 

A lecture/laboratory course that focuses on anthropogenic and natural toxicants, mathematical modeling of the dispersion of chemical and physical agents in the environment, effects on species and ecosystems with a special section on aquatic risk assessment. The laboratory includes techniques in environmental toxicity and a genuine research project.

Prerequisites: BIOL 460 

A lecture/laboratory course focusing on the steps necessary to start a research project from project definition through methods testing and evaluation, and a final report that includes a project flow chart. Third year students will have senior and/or graduate mentors. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, and General Chemistry Alt-Fall

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and General Chemistry 

A lecture/laboratory course where students perform all aspects of their own designed research topic in toxicology while critically evaluating the progress of other projects as well. Students will be expected to keep timelines or develop modified timelines as necessary. The inverted triangle approach of project design will be examined and then included in all designs.

Prerequisites: BIOL 464 

A lecture course that examines Minnesota State University, Mankato, as your own work place to develop reports on a selected group of chemical and physical hazards of the workplace. Evaluation methods and solutions to existing problems are developed with concise reporting skills. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106 and 1 year of General Chemistry

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry 

Plant Science -

Biology of plants including unique features of plant cells, life histories, metabolism, anatomy, physiology, and ecology. The course empathizes plants' remarkable adaptations to their environments, their diversity, and the vital roles they play in ecological interactions. For biology and environmental science majors and minors. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 or consent 

Soil ecology will focus on the genesis and classification of soils, the physical properties of soil as they relate to habitat formation, niches, interactions that exist among soil organisms, human impact on soil systems relative to population pressures and management practices. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent 

Plant functions such as water relations, mineral nutrition, translocation, metabolisms, photosynthesis, photorespiration, fat and protein metabolism, respiration, growth and development, phytohormones, reproduction and environmental physiology. Lab included. (One semester organic chemistry is recommended.)

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 217, one semester organic chemistry recommended. 

Field identification of plants with emphasis on local flora. History systematic, techniques, plant biogeography, methods of plant collection, preservation, preparation of herbarium specimens are covered. Lab and field trips included.

Prerequisites: none

Expands upon general principles of ecology to focus on the factors that regulate the distribution and abundance of plants, analysis of plant populations, and dynamics of plant communities. Lecture and lab (fieldwork) included. (Taking BIOL 217 is strongly recommended before taking this class.)

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent. BIOL 217 strongly recommended. 

Microbiology -

An introduction to the general principles and methods used in the study of microorganisms. Lab included. Prereq: One BIOL course and one semester of chemistry from among CHEM 104, CHEM 106, CHEM 111, or CHEM 201. Fall, Spring, Summer

Prerequisites: One BIOL course and one semester of chemistry from among CHEM 104, CHEM 106, CHEM 111, or CHEM 201 

Goal Areas: GE-03

Clinically important parasites. Protozoans, Flukes, Tapeworms, Roundworms, Ticks, Mites and Insects. Designed for Medical Technology, Pre-Med, Pre-Vet and Biology majors. Identification, clinical disease, epidemiology and ecology are covered. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 100 or BIOL 105, BIOL 106 recommended 

This course will cover bacterial, fungal, and viral human pathogens: what diseases they cause, how they cause disease, and how humans defend against and prevent those diseases. In the laboratory the student will isolate and identify pathogenic microorganisms using microbiological, biochemical, and immunological techniques.

Prerequisites: BIOL 270 

This course presents the physiology and genetics of microorganisms emphasizing those aspects unique to bacteria and archea. Topics include: energy production; biosynthesis of small molecules and DNA, RNA, and proteins; the formation of cell walls and membranes; microbial differentiation and behavior; and the genetic and biochemical regulation of these processes. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 270 

The role microbes play in production and spoilage of food products, as prepared for mass market. Topics include foodborn pathogens, epidemiology and control, essential principles in sanitation including Hazard Analysis/Critical Control Point and ISO 9000 requirements. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106 and BIOL 270 

CHOOSE 1 CLUSTER: - Select TWO courses from ONE of the following 6 areas. These electives cannot be used in the minor and are in addition to the two courses selected from one of the 6 areas in Biology.

Geography -

The lecture material addresses map projections, technology changes in production, basic analysis and depiction of quantitative point, line and areal data. Also, the evaluation of maps and the history of cartography from a European, Oriental, and American Indian perspective is discussed. All maps are drawn using computer assistance.

Prerequisites: none

The course will be an introduction to the analysis of spatial data using the concept of a geographic information system (GIS). Content of the course will be, to a great extent, based on the NCGIA core curriculum with assignments tailored to the data and software available within the department such as ArcGIS.

Prerequisites: none

The characteristics of particular climates and understanding the factors that control their spatial distribution.

Prerequisites: none

Survey of natural resources emphasizing energy, minerals, soils, fisheries, and water resources. Also addresses timber, wetlands, and wildlife on public and private lands.

Prerequisites: none

This course covers the basic strategies for field mapping using data acquired from global positioning systems (GPS).

Prerequisites: GEOG 373 or equivalent 

Comprehensive examination of GIS for manipulation and analysis of spatially-referenced data, including data structure and organization, input and output problems, data management, and strategies for analytical work.

Prerequisites: GEOG 373 

This is an introductory course on theories and techniques of remote sensing. Focus will be placed on providing students with a general overview of the application of remote sensing to practical problems, and hands-on experience for image processing and analysis.

Prerequisites: none

This course provides students the opportunity to develop further knowledge of remote sensing. Emphasis will be placed on introducing advanced theories and techniques for digital image processing and helping students obtain independent research skills using remote sensing data.

Prerequisites: GEOG 373, GEOG 474

Urban and Regional Studies -

Introduction to skills and techniques used to form questions about urban affairs, to organize and analyze information to answer it, and to present the results of one's analysis in a professional format.Fall, Spring

Prerequisites: none

Prepares students to analyze problems, identify alternative solutions and utilize techniques of analysis.

Prerequisites: none

An overview of local government law and local governing powers. In addition, public issues in the legal context will be examined from a management and operational perspective.

Prerequisites: none

Theory and applications of principles of landscape architecture or urban design.

Prerequisites: none

Regional and county planning content and procedures, including basic research, land use planning, and implementation of regulations.

Prerequisites: none

Political Science -

Legal procedures by which state and federal administrative agencies exercise legislative, judicial and executive powers. Emphasis is placed on the constitutional position of administrative agencies, the rule making process, the power of agencies to decide rights and obligations concerning individual cases, and judicial control of administrative action.

Prerequisites: none

Review of selected U.S. Supreme Court decisions relating to the powers of the President, Congress and the Judiciary, as well as the division of power between the states and the federal government. Focus is on case briefing, underlying rationales, and the development of individual analytical abilities.

Prerequisites: none

Politics of the natural environment (U.S. focus). Environmental and opposition values; roles of public opinion, Congress, presidency and courts in environmental policy making. Policy areas include: air/water pollution, climate change, hazardous/nuclear waste, sustainable development, and commons problems like overfishing.

Prerequisites: none

United States Congress and state legislatures, with some cross-national comparisons. Legislative structure, powers; districting, elections, representation, constituency relations; committee system, parties, law-making process, rules and procedure, decision-making, relations with executives and courts. Reforms.

Prerequisites: none

Examination of executive politics in United States at a federal and state level, with some cross-national comparisons. United States presidency and executive branch, governors and state executive branches, mayors, and other local executives.

Prerequisites: none

An examination of the structure, jurisdiction and processes of federal and state courts. Also studied are judicial decision-making, the selection of judges and justices. Same as LAWE 437.

Prerequisites: none

Recreation, Parks and Leisure Services -

This course is a survey of commercial recreation and tourism that examines the basic types of commercial recreation and tourism providers, some basic trends in commercial recreation and the social, economic and environmental impacts of commercial recreation and tourism.

Prerequisites: none

This course introduces students to basic management and planning techniques for a wide variety of in-door and out-door recreation facilities.

Prerequisites: none

Traces the history of public lands in the United States, their acquisition and disposal. Congressional charges to executive agencies managing national lands and state and local government responsibilities for managing nonfederal public lands. Attention is given to international oceanic resources and how the international community will manage these resources.

Prerequisites: none

Traces the history of the parks movement in the United States, selected legislation establishing parks and the enactment of funding legislation. The importance of public participation, planning and political strategies are stressed.

Prerequisites: none

This course investigates legislative and budgetary processes utilized in the public, non-profit, and private sectors of the leisure services profession.

Prerequisites: none

Business Law -

Legal aspects of United States global trade policies, regulation of imports, contracting in the global marketplace, international marketing concerns, structure of various international organizations and treaties. Legal aspects of international licensing and technology, transfers risks of nationalization and expropriation, international dispute resolution, comity, the Act of State, and sovereign immunity doctrines.

Prerequisites: BLAW 200 

Legal aspects of land use planning, drainage, surface water rights and boundaries, mining and land reclamation, clean air, clean water, waste disposal, noise control and environmental permit processes. Discussion of legal aspects of Historic Landmark Preservation, National Environmental Policy, CERCLA, the Superfund, liability for environmental contamination and emerging environmental issues.

Prerequisites: BLAW 200 

Legal responsibilities of architects, engineers and contractors in dealing with each other, the project's owner, sureties and subcontractors. Special emphasis on performance problems, forms of business association, legal relationships with independent contractors, the AIA contract documents, mechanics liens, AAA Construction Arbitration Rules, dispute avoidance, claims management and collection strategies.

Prerequisites: BLAW 200 

Biology -

A comprehensive phylogenetic survey of both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Emphasis on evolutionary relationships among phyla, the evolution of organ systems, animal organization and function, animal adaptations, and zoogeographical considerations. Research and inquiry of animal unity and diversity will include using the Internet. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 

An examination of eukaryotic cellular structure, organization and physiology. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106, BIOL 211 

Basic anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. The course is designed for students majoring in biology, psychology or health related programs.

Prerequisites: BIOL 220 

The structure and function of stream ecosystems are presented with emphasis on adaptations of organisms to stream life and connections between stream organisms, the aquatic environment, and the surrounding watershed. Includes lab, field work, and team projects. Prereq: BIOL 105W, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consentSummer

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent

Applications of principles from ecology, genetics, behavior, demography, economics, philosophy, and other fields to the conservation and sustainable use of natural populations of plants and animals. Lectures and discussions address topics such as habitat fragmentation, parks and reserves, genetic diversity, population viability, and extinction.

Prerequisites: BIOL 215 or consent 

To provide students the values and functions of wetlands and to use wetlands as an example of the relationship of ecology to management, and the impact that classification systems have politically. Lab (fieldwork) included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent 

An introduction to fish biology and fisheries management, diversity, form, and function in the aquatic environment, functional physiology, evolution and speciation, identification and use of keys, ecology, and management topics.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent of instructor

A field course in the ecology of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and fishes. Students are trained in sampling techniques such as mark-and-recapture, population size estimation and monitoring, and species identification of live and preserved specimens. Lectures encompass evolution and adoption, origins, energetics, mating systems, morphology, geographical distributions, and population-level phenomena. Lecture and Laboratory.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent 

A field course focused on the function and dynamics of various North American ecosystems. Emphases will be on natural history, critical thought, and experimental design. Students will be trained in a variety of soil, plant, and animal sampling techniques. Depending on enrollment, there may be additional costs (e.g., camping fees) for the course.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent 

Soil ecology will focus on the genesis and classification of soils, the physical properties of soil as they relate to habitat formation, niches, interactions that exist among soil organisms, human impact on soil systems relative to population pressures and management practices. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215, or consent 

Emphasis is placed on the biomedical aspects of aging and chronic disease. The course is designed for students majoring in biology, gerontology programs, or other health related programs.

Prerequisites: BIOL 100 or BIOL 105 

Clinically important parasites. Protozoans, Flukes, Tapeworms, Roundworms, Ticks, Mites and Insects. Designed for Medical Technology, Pre-Med, Pre-Vet and Biology majors. Identification, clinical disease, epidemiology and ecology are covered. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 100 or BIOL 105, BIOL 106 recommended 

Morphological, physiological, medical, and economic significance of insects.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105 and BIOL 106 or consent 

Understanding the process of cell differentiation and development. Special emphasis will be placed on the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that direct the development of multicellular organisms. Course to include current areas of research and other timely topics.

Prerequisites: BIOL 100 or BIOL 105 

A comparison of adaptation mechanisms, from cell to organ-system, used by animals in response to changes in environmental conditions such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, food availability, temperature, water, solutes, pressure and buoyancy.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106 or consent 

This course is an introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and interactions of inland freshwater lakes. Labs will emphasize field work, including data collection from five local lakes, analysis, and discussion.

Prerequisites: none

Study of types, arrangements and special adaptations of human tissues. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 220 

An exploration of behavioral strategy, communication, learning, and social systems of animals, with emphases placed on the causes, evolution, ecological implications, and function of behavior at the individual and population level. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 

This course provides the basis for understanding hormones and the mechanisms of their actions in both the normal and pathological states. Sample topics to be included are diabetes, osteoporosis, hormones of reproduction and current social and medical issues related to the course.

Prerequisites: BIOL 100 or BIOL 105 

Plant functions such as water relations, mineral nutrition, translocation, metabolisms, photosynthesis, photorespiration, fat and protein metabolism, respiration, growth and development, phytohormones, reproduction and environmental physiology. Lab included. (One semester organic chemistry is recommended.)

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 217, one semester organic chemistry recommended. 

Field identification of plants with emphasis on local flora. History systematic, techniques, plant biogeography, methods of plant collection, preservation, preparation of herbarium specimens are covered. Lab and field trips included.

Prerequisites: none

Expands upon general principles of ecology to focus on the factors that regulate the distribution and abundance of plants, analysis of plant populations, and dynamics of plant communities. Lecture and lab (fieldwork) included. (Taking BIOL 217 is strongly recommended before taking this class.)

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 215 or consent. BIOL 217 strongly recommended. 

Lecture/laboratory course that presents an integrated view of plant biology, crop science, ecology, sustainability and current issues in biotechnology. Course focuses on issues of global concern such as sustainable food production, cropping techniques, climate change responses, pest management and herbicides, resistance, biofuels, genetically modified crops, molecular pharming, and tissue culture. Fall.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106

A lecture course covering basic principles of toxicity evaluation in living organisms, mechanisms of responses to chemicals or physical agents within an overview of practical medical, environmental and science policy implications. Presentation of comparisons of specific organ and tissue reactions to toxins in a variety of species follow these introductory concepts. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and 1 year of General Chemistry 

A lecture/laboratory course that focuses on anthropogenic and natural toxicants, mathematical modeling of the dispersion of chemical and physical agents in the environment, effects on species and ecosystems with a special section on aquatic risk assessment. The laboratory includes techniques in environmental toxicity and a genuine research project.

Prerequisites: BIOL 460 

A lecture/laboratory course focusing on the steps necessary to start a research project from project definition through methods testing and evaluation, and a final report that includes a project flow chart. Third year students will have senior and/or graduate mentors. Prereq: BIOL 105W, 106, and General Chemistry Alt-Fall

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and General Chemistry 

Role of microorganisms in soil, air, water, sewage processes as well as methods of measurement and detection. Special emphasis on the role of microorganisms in bioremediation. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and BIOL 270 

Fundamental principles of humoral and cell mediated immunity and the application of these principles. Current experimental work in the different areas of immunology will be discussed. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, and BIOL 270 

This course presents the physiology and genetics of microorganisms emphasizing those aspects unique to bacteria and archea. Topics include: energy production; biosynthesis of small molecules and DNA, RNA, and proteins; the formation of cell walls and membranes; microbial differentiation and behavior; and the genetic and biochemical regulation of these processes. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 270 

The role microbes play in production and spoilage of food products, as prepared for mass market. Topics include foodborn pathogens, epidemiology and control, essential principles in sanitation including Hazard Analysis/Critical Control Point and ISO 9000 requirements. Lab included.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106 and BIOL 270 

This course will cover both eukaryotic and prokaryotic molecular biology including: DNA and RNA structure, transcription, regulation of gene expression, RNA processing, protein synthesis, DNA replication, mutagenesis and repair, recombination, and insertion elements. A number of important techniques used in recombinant DNA technology will be discussed and practiced.

Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 106, BIOL 211

General Electives

It is the student's responsibility to ensure that he/she has completed 40 credits at the 300-400 level. This is a University requirement for graduation.

Minor

Select One Minor from the following: Anthropology, Automotive Engineering Technology, Business Law, Chemistry, Geography, Geology, Law Enforcement, Political Science, Recreation, Parks and Leisure Services, or Urban and Regional Studies